(Emotional) Safety First: Supporting Students with Trauma Histories

“As your school counselor, your safety is my first priority.” I cannot count how many times I have said that phrase to students, and I’m pretty good at counting. It was usually one of the first things I said as part of a quick, limits-of-confidentiality spiel, and it helped set the tone for what students could expect of me. In a political climate that has legislators refusing to take evidence-based steps to help reduce school shootings, in the very presence of school shooting victims, student safety remains an urgently relevant concern. When reading the phrase, “student safety,” the physical, bodily safety of students may immediately come to mind. Less likely to be considered, but still very worthy of attention is our students’ emotional safety.

Before we get into an examination of emotional safety in the classroom, let’s talk about the brain’s limbic system. The limbic system manages survival behaviors and emotional responses. The amygdala, which is part of the limbic system, connects emotions to our memories (if you’re familiar with the Disney Pixar film, Inside Out, Headquarters is kind of like the amygdala). The amygdala also initiates the fight, flight, or freeze response. Here’s how that response works. You encounter what your amygdala perceives to be a threat. The amygdala sends signals to your body to release adrenaline and cortisol, to help prepare you to either confront the threat, or flee from the threat. Sometimes, if a threat is perceived to be particularly intense, the body will prepare to fight or fly, but instead of “fighting” or “flying”, the body freezes. The frequent release of adrenaline and cortisol short-circuits the parts of the brain that have to do with learning and self-regulation. We call this collective response to threat, stress.

Now, back to emotional safety in schools. According to the National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments, emotional safety is, “[an] experience in which one feels safe to express emotions, security, and confidence to take risks and feel challenged and excited to try something new.” Put another way; an emotionally-safe environment is one in which failure, or the potential for failure, are not perceived as threats. If you have ever been in a classroom as a student, unfortunately, you are probably familiar with the concept of an emotionally-unsafe setting. Many remember their years in middle and high school to be especially fraught with self-consciousness and worry, full of potential emotional threats at every turn.

The Fight-Flight-or-Freeze Response in the Classroom

As an educator, I have seen students respond to perceived emotional threats in the classroom, for example, being called on to answer a question or having to take a test, by:

  • “Fighting” – becoming angry and defiant
  • “Flying” – not doing their work, trying to get kicked out of class, and
  • “Freezing” – shutting down, not engaging

Educators sometimes write-off students who react these ways in class, but it’s important to recognize that such students have often already been exposed to other, more threatening stressors at home, or in the community. It’s no coincidence that schools that report higher-than-average discipline rates also happen to be in the poorest neighborhoods, which also happen to be populated primarily with families from minoritized groups. Students from such socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds are often dealing with trauma histories that have put them into a constant state of stress. As we know, that stress hijacks their learning. But when a school is emotionally-safe, students with trauma histories feel secure enough “to take risks and feel challenged and excited to try something new.”

The following infographic shows why students with trauma histories may “act out” when asked to participate in seemingly simple classroom activities.

Ready to Learn More?

On August 6th, 2018, the Alliance for Positive Youth Development is having FREE online workshops on Trauma-Sensitive Education at this year’s APYDCON. The first workshop will be a panel Q&A with experts Anna Paravono-Frise, an educator and advocate of youth trauma, and Towana Cately, a counselor at Antelope Valley College. The day will end with a presentation by Anne-Marie Gauto, a professor at the University of Southern California Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work. The panel and presentation will address best practices for identifying and supporting students with trauma histories. Visit ideas4youth.org/apydcon to register.



#APYDCON 2018: Trauma-Sensitive Education

The Alliance for Positive Youth Development (APYD) is one of the program initiatives within our Beyond Good Ideas Foundation. APYD is an international membership network connecting and supporting individuals that have dedicated their career to youth and youth development. Each year we host an online Best Practices for Youth Conference (APYDCON) focusing on three themes affecting today’s youth. This 3-day free virtual conference consists of expert panels with Q&A sessions and afternoon lectures. This year’s themes are Trauma-Sensitive Education, Youth Homelessness, and LGBTQ Bullying in School Settings.

Our SISGI intern, Kristal Ibrahim choose the Trauma-Sensitive Education theme. Kristal is a Master of Social Work student from the University of Southern California. For the past 6 months, Kristal has worked in the planning and logistics of the overall conference. We recently interviewed her about APYDCON 2018 and this is what she told us:

Why did you choose this topic?

I’m highlighting trauma-sensitive education because of my passion for social justice. I wanted a topic that was related to education, but that also called attention to the persistent societal barriers plaguing those in minoritized populations. Many children and young people who are part of minoritized populations live with complex trauma, and that complex trauma is due to those same societal barriers that I want to point out. So raising awareness about trauma-sensitive education fit the bill, for me.

Why does trauma-sensitive education matter?

I think it’s important to talk about trauma-sensitive education because so many of our youth are dealing with complex trauma or even a single trauma. Any trauma can have lasting effects on a young person’s physical and mental development, and over 60% of the US population has experienced at least one traumatic event in their lives. When you think about it, since so many people are living with the effects of trauma, youth worker professionals are very likely to encounter kids or youth who need help coping with the effects of trauma.

Can you tell us a little about your speakers?

All of the women who will be speaking about trauma-sensitive education at APYDCON are amazing educators! They each bring so much experience in supporting students with trauma histories, but what’s really great about having them speak on this topic is that they each have different perspectives on the matter. For instance, Towana co-managed a group home for foster children, and now supports college students with trauma histories. Anna is an interior design professor, and she is also a mom to a child with a trauma history, due to the circumstances of his adoption. And Anne-Marie has been a therapist, a school social worker, and is currently a school social worker administrator supporting kids of all ages. I’m excited to see how their insights on trauma-sensitive education reflect their different backgrounds.

What discussions can attendees expect from the panel and lecture?

APYDCON attendees can expect to hear about strategies to help us support students with trauma histories, as well as strategies that haven’t worked to help such students. We can also expect to hear about the challenges that we might face when trying to support students with trauma histories, and how to identify students with trauma histories.

Why should people register for APYDCON 2018?

I would encourage people to register for APYDCON so that they can learn about supporting youth with trauma histories, from experts who are in the trenches. I always find it inspiring to hear from those who have experience with the work, and who are currently active in it. It makes me feel like I’m not alone in my passion to increase social justice, and that I can trust what they’re saying since I know that they speak from recent experience.

Kristal will moderate the APYDCON Trauma-Sensitive Education workshops on August 6th, 2018.  Visit ideas4youth.org/apydcon to register for FREE and learn more about the virtual conference.


What I learned at the 2018 Network for Social Work Management Conference

This week I spent two days in sunny, beautiful San Diego, California. I had been sponsored to attend the Network for Social Work Management’s annual conference. where every year they bring together a large audience of social workers, human service organization representatives, international experts, researchers, and practitioners to learn about innovative social work management practices. With plenary sessions, workshops, and networking opportunities, my time was PACKED with activities!

As I sit here just three days post the conference, I am thinking back at all of the things that I learned and absorbed in such a short amount of time. On day one, hundreds of people filled the beautiful conference room inside San Diego State University’s Montezuma Hall. We were quickly enlightened about the theme of the this year’s conference – Disruptive Leadership. Here, we often heard the term disrupting norms. Many speakers shared that in order for change to happen it was imperative for social workers to interrupt the status quo.

Antonia Jimenez, B.S., Keynote Speaker on the benefits and challenges of implementing change.

Antonia Jimenez, Director LA Department of Social Services,  explained in her speech that we as social workers must be a hybrid of both vision and implementation. She continued to state that we must speak up about our ideas even when we think people don’t hear us. I really liked her story of when she was working for a governor who once told her that two of his goals, when he was to retire, was (1) to be known for the innovations he had created and (2) plant the innovative seeds for the next governor. Altogether, her humor and vulnerability to describe her journey was a great way to break the ice and start off the morning.

With one of my colleagues, Heather Mercer, I went to attend a workshop about how to be inclusive when working with college students. The trainers spoke about the different tools that they have seen to be successful as they attempted in their research to test the climates of their classrooms. For example, Dawn Shedrick spoke about incorporating community agreements at the beginning of the semester. This is a list of agreements that are mutually agreed upon and to be carried out throughout the course. These can include items such as one diva one mic, ELMO (enough let’s move on), and respecting others’ opinions. This helps in setting connection before bringing up sensitive topics. Dawn also spoke about incorporating activities to encourage engagement. One exercise she uses is asking all students to say something that they respect about their classmates. When students feel respected by their peers, this encourages them to be vulnerable. Lastly, to empower students, she often replies to them by saying, “you’re not the only one at this school that’s noticed/experienced that.” Feeling like they are not alone, students will feel better about their experience seeing that others have also had similar experiences. My biggest takeaway in this conference was noting how easy and fun these tools can be in a classroom. With such little effort, these tools can really be conducive to safe and friendly environments for students and the teacher.

USC’s Laura Witcoff, MSW, LICSW, Lauren E. Brown, MPP, Ph.D., and Jennifer Goldstein at their presentation on Gamifying Engagement.

In another workshop, I learned how utilizing games to attract an audience can be effective. One of my professors at USC, Dr. Lauren Brown, spoke with her research team about their concepts of media that work for nonprofits. Their research looked at ways that technology can benefit a nonprofit organization and its promotion. The workshop audience was split up into groups of two where each group was assigned a scenario of an agency and their mission. Our jobs were to create game ideas that were in line with the message we wanted to relay. My group was given a mock agency of an interim housing for homeless families in Los Angeles. The agency’s mission was to eliminate homelessness among families with children in Los Angeles by providing housing, supportive services, and advocacy. The message was, “All children and families deserve a home.” Together, my group brainstormed ideas about what could captivate people to learn/donate/advocate for this specific agency. We went straight to the drawing board and came up with some creative game ideas, such as: asking people to write about their favorite family moment, talk about what it means to have a home, and share what their favorite childhood toy was. In this manner, people will reflect on their childhood, family, home, and privileges, encouraging them to participate with the agency. Although social media and tech games are not my particular forte, I can see the power in these creative skills to capture audiences. A simple game that brings light to privilege and experience can make the participation empathetic and personal.

A morning breakfast with SISGI staff and interns (from left to right: Robert, Patty, Gabe [center], Thenera, Andrea, and Heather).

After so many workshops, the conference attendees had the opportunity to have lunch with USC’s staff. Obviously, I wanted to take advantage of this time because it is not often I get to meet with the faculty in person. I had a chance to mingle and learn about what some professors and alumni are doing these days. From teaching to HR, to research, there was a wide range of careers that today’s social workers are doing. I felt honored to share space with these intellectuals. Their wisdom and intelligence were unique and informative as I am starting to shape my career as I near graduation.

Once day-one came to an end, my internship team met together at a local restaurant. I thought to myself that after being focused all day I wasn’t sure I can come up with the energy to socialize but of course I did. There were six of us at the table, and we had a blast! Our conversations were un-serious, and although many of us have vast differences, there was just something in every person at that table that I truly liked. Each person brought a unique set of characteristics, talents, and wisdom that wholly made us work so well.

Christopher “Chip” Paucek presenting a keynote on Leadership Lessons: A CEO’s Perspective on Leading through Change, Building a Great Culture and Cultivating Talent.

Finally, after a long day-one, we were back at it the next day for day two! The day was set to end a bit earlier and incorporate more workshops and plenaries. Day two was kicked off with a presentation by CEO of the world’s best digital education – 2U, Chip Paucek. He was an approachable man with a strong history of pushing through the cracks. Chip spoke about his original idea of technology being unattractive, threatening, and invasive to academics. While practitioners also saw social media as a burden. It took him years until he slowly started to “normalize” this notion of digital education as a new platform for colleges. He struggled to create acceptance of his product, but he endured and found himself finally breaking way. Colleges that finally gave his company a shot began to see the benefits of having such a platform incorporated into their schools. Chip’s closing remarks spoke about appreciation and staying optimistic and grateful. Hearing Chip’s story gave me a sense of hope. Hope that although I may not succeed with my first ideas and there may be obstacles, staying optimistic and persevering through these trials is what gets you to the end of the tunnel.

SISGI Group attendees’ name badges with some added bling.

In the late morning, I took a workshop on research that showed how to get legislative attention to the causes we’re advocating for as social workers. The instructor spoke about his research from his five-step process to push forward in an evidence-based manner to move from the idea to get it voted on. With over a dozen organizations that Minarik used in his study to show how his model is effective, he proposes that having a tailored information sharing decision model is promising. Legislature for me always seems so grand and intangible, but I really liked how his steps gave realistic steps for social workers who are interested in this process.

As day two came to an end, I reflected on my time at the conference, which altogether was well effective and purposeful. This opportunity gave me the ability to meet many people in this field: researchers, professors, social workers, students, interns, business-owners, etc. I learned so much about what we can do to be a disruptive leader. I was inspired by the stories shared by our plenary speakers. I was renewed by the energy of my internship colleagues. And I found faith in my future as a social worker as I learned about what many ways social work is making an impact.

Upcoming Virtual Conference Opportunity!

If you didn’t get a chance to attend this year’s Network for Social Work Management Conference, there’s still a great opportunity coming around the corner, and the best part about it is that it will be a virtual conference. You don’t even have to travel anywhere! On August 6th – 8th 2018, my internship site, SISGI Group, will hold our annual Alliance for Positive Youth Development Conference #APYDCON. Here, attendees will leverage technology and social media to share and connect with youth development professionals, educators, and young people working on youth issues. Specifically, we will have lecturers and panelists each day that will discuss best practices that can be used for Trauma-Sensitive Education, Youth Homelessness, and LGBT+ Bullying in School Settings.

For more information and to register for the Alliance for Positive Youth Development Conference visit ideas4youth.org/apydcon.  If you would like to become an exhibitor then click here to fill out the virtual exhibit hall application.

If you’d like more information about the Network for Social Work Management, please visit their site at https://socialworkmanager.org/


Take 5 with a NELA Fellow – Rose Marguez

We continue our Take 5 Series with Rose Marquez, Executive Director of Cha Piyeh, Inc. Rose is an enrolled tribal member of the Ohkay Owingeh Nation in Northern New Mexico. The organization in which she leads, Cha Piyeh, Inc translates to “lending money” in the Tewa language, and is a Native Community Financial Institution (CDFI) and 501 (c)3 non-profit organization.

The Take 5 Series allows us to get a closer look at our NELA Fellows as they offer insight into their experiences as Nonprofit Executives. Want to hear even more about the career journey of our fellows? Join us for our Social Change Career Series where our fellows and other nonprofit leaders share their career path to executive leadership as well as what inspires them to create social change.

Visit http://sisgigroup.org/careerseries to register.         

Below is Rose’s answer to one of the questions in the Take 5 series on the SISGI Group website. To see Rose’s answers to all 5 questions visit http://sisgigroup.org/rose-marquez/

5. Do you have any advice for someone who is interested in one day being in an executive role in the nonprofit sector?

I truly think that all women should strive to be a leader not only in their career but in their life. I am indeed a role model for all women who want to pursue this role and am happy to share my story with which I know I control and know will end positively.


#APYDCHAT: Ending Youth Homelessness

Approximately 4.2 million youth in America are experiencing homelessness. Unfortunately, being homeless is something that is not always visible to the public eye. Homeless youth, in particular, are a hidden population that often couch-surf with friends, and are left out of most Point-in-Time counts. Still, current data indicate that youth homelessness is on the rise.

From the US to the UK, nations across the world have seen an increase in their homeless youth population. In some US states, the homeless youth population has tripled. Meanwhile, a fifth of young adults in the UK are currently homeless.

Why is there an increase in homeless youth?

The answer to this question varies, but according to the Covenant House,

the main cause of youth homelessness is physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse from parents or guardians.”

Recent statistics also show that 40% of homeless youth are under 18, 40% identify as LGBT+, and 50% are aging out of the foster care and juvenile justice systems. These numbers indicate that homeless youth are in need of trauma care, housing, education preparedness, and employment training services.

At NotEnoughGood, we have written about the needs of people experiencing homelessness in multiple blog posts. (See This, This and This as examples)  You can read even more about this in our Homelessness Blog Series by searching the keyword ‘homelessness’. There are also countless research articles on the web that explain the contributing factors to youth homelessness, but unsafe households and involvement in the child welfare or juvenile justice system remain at the top of the list.

Now that we know why youth become homeless, the next step is learning how to alleviate this social crisis. Homelessness doesn’t have a one-size fits all solution, but prevention is always a great start to any social problem.

Let’s Talk About Prevention!

Ending youth homelessness requires collective action, so we invite you to join our Twitter chat on March 28th at 12PM PST/3PM EST where we will discuss prevention strategies with special guests: Erin Chapman-Smith and Emma York JonesDirectors of Housing and Shelter Services at YouthCare Seattle, Washington.

Can’t make it to the chat? You can still participate throughout the year by sharing information about youth homelessness on social media using the hashtag #APYDCHAT.

Continuing The Conversation in APYDCON

Our youth homelessness conversation doesn’t stop here. We will continue the conversation on August 7th, 2018 at APYDCON, our FREE, Best Practices for Youth Development Virtual Conference. Sign up here to receive APYDCON updates or follow us on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram


Take 5 with a NELA Fellow – Renee D. Flagler

We continue our Take 5 Series with Renee D. Flagler, Executive Director of Girls Inc. Long Island. Renee Daniel Flagler is an award-winning writer, adjunct professor, and a speaker who is passionate about encouraging people, especially women and youth to pursue their passion and purpose. Renee is the Executive Director of Girls Inc. of Long Island, whose mission is to empower girls to be strong, smart and bold. Renee advocates for youth both in the United States and abroad. She is a founding board member and former Board Chair for LEAP (Literacy Empowerment Action Project) Global, an organization with a mission to provide innovative literacy, youth empowerment programming, and high school scholarships to students in Ghana, Africa.

The Take 5 series allows us to get a closer look at our NELA Fellows as they offer insight into their experiences as Nonprofit Executives. Want to hear even more about the career journey of our fellows? Join us for our Social Change Career Series where our fellows and other nonprofit leaders share their career path to executive leadership as well as what inspires them to create social change. Visit http://sisgigroup.org/careerseries to register.

Below is Renee’s answer to one of the questions in the Take 5 series on the SISGI Group website.  To see Renee’s answers to all 5 questions visit http://sisgigroup.org/renee-flagler/

4. How do you believe NELA addresses issues pertaining to women and leadership in the nonprofit sector?

Women thrive in collaborative environments. We are natural collaborators and together we make one another stronger. NELA has been key in having women in leadership collaborate, share, hear each other and network in a way this is both effective and fulfilling. I have new friends as a result of my NELA fellowship.

Take 5 with a NELA Fellow – Bethany Housman

The Nonprofit Executive Leadership Academy Program is a year-long leadership program for female nonprofit executives that includes networking with other nonprofit professionals, access to training and professional development on executive skills in social change leadership, and a chance to receive strategic support and coaching. The SISGI Group is launching a new interview series on their website –  Take 5 With a NELA Fellow.

The Take 5 series will allow us to get a closer look at our NELA Fellows as they offer insight into their experiences as Nonprofit Executives. Want to hear even more about the career journey of our fellows? Join us for our Social Change Career Series where our fellows and other nonprofit leaders share their career path to executive leadership as well as what inspires them to create social change. Visit http://sisgigroup.org/careerseries to register.

The first participant in the series is Bethany Housman, Director of PromiseCorps Philadephia. Bethany is a 2017 Nonprofit Executive Leadership Academy Fellow, Cross-Fitting vegetarian and an avid New Orleans Saints fan. Bethany graduated from St. John’s University with a B.A. in Communication Arts followed by a graduate degree in Sociology at St. John’s and a graduate degree in Urban Education at Temple University.

After a short stint with Z100 radio station in her undergraduate years, she decided to continue her education in Sociology and work on issues affecting communities. She traveled to France, Germany, Panama, Canada and a variety of states for different projects. During the completion of her graduate degree she moved to New Orleans, Louisiana after a 3-week volunteer effort supporting disaster relief turned into her relocation. Bethany spent 2 years as the Program Director for City Year Louisiana, managing the New Orleans and Baton Rouge programs and eventually launched City Year New Orleans and continued as a Sr. Program Director. Bethany relocated to City Year Philadelphia in 2012 to be closer to her family. While working on her graduate degree at Temple she became an Operations Coordinator for a national charter organization and upon completion of her degree joined the Promise Corps team.

She can regularly be found in Roxborough, Philadelphia with her wife, their 2 cats (Senor Julio & Peyton Manning), retired greyhound (Luna) and mini-pitbull (Liberty)!

1. What is your leadership style?

My leadership style is most often described as direct. I’ve worked very hard in my career to also allow it to be described as supportive. Leading requires much more than just pointing towards a direction; there is a balance between pointing and getting others to also point with you — finding this balance is something I’ll be working on for a long time.
I’ve learned over time that I am not an overthinker. I do not need to analyze stats or consider scenarios. I’m very comfortable taking responsibility for decisions I make but I’ve had to learn and develop that over time. I do like to warn my team about this aspect of my leadership, while I’m comfortable making quick decisions I do take the time to gain perspective from others when possible.
I need to work on some aspects of my leadership style. I overcommunicate, repeat myself and have reminders set to remind myself to set reminders. I also repeat myself.

To see Bethany’s answers to all 5 questions visit http://sisgigroup.org/bethany-housman/



#GivingTuesday: One Day that Impacts All Others

While many Americans look forward to the days following Thanksgiving, #BlackFriday and #CyberMonday, for deals on gifts from friends or family, #GivingTuesday is a global campaign aimed at closing the disconnect between the materialism that has become associated with the holiday season and focuses on taking one day to rally and give back to communities around the globe.

The SISGI Group would love to have your partnership this holiday season, and beyond. To learn more about how you can make a difference in your community and beyond, check out the full details about this year’s #GivingTuesday campaign written by Melanie Cushman at http://sisgigroup.org/givingtuesday.

CLASS Fall 2017: Where Passion Ignites our Purpose

Last week The SISGI Group initiated the newest cohort of our Community Leadership Academy for the Social Sector (CLASS)! CLASS is an initiative that supports nonprofit professionals as they design a project to address an issue in their community. Although this program is a one year virtual experience, the kick off is a one day in-person meeting to establish community between leadership academy staff and CLASS Fellows as well as set a strong foundation for the learning that will occur throughout the following months.

Melanie Cushman, Fall 2017 Leadership Academy Intern, shared her perspective and takeaways from the Class Fall 2017 Leadership Institute in Los Angeles, California on the SISGI Group website. Check out the full post at http://sisgigroup.org/class-fall-2017/


Should a Living Wage be a Basic Human Right?

Today marks the 8th anniversary since the last federal increase in the minimum wage. Since then and since the publication of my original blog post on this issue, several states passed legislation to increase their minimum pay, joining the 29 states and 41 localities with a higher minimum wage than the national rate of $7.25 an hour. The increases are in large part due to the rising momentum of worker movements like @Fightfor15. However, these movements that are still seeking to improve the livelihood of over 41 million low wage workers and 19 million children in the US, had a setback last month with the publication of a new study analyzing the effects of Seattle’s gradual minimum wage hike to $15 an hour. The researchers found that the cost of the increase to low-wage workers outweighed the benefits, claiming that the new, higher wage forced companies to hire fewer workers.

Despite concerns over the credibility of the study and despite the fact that these results contradict years of research that found that wage increases benefit working families and have very little effect on employment, this study reinvigorated the debate over the policy with headlines like “New study on the $15 minimum wage has bad news for liberals” and “New Seattle study is a big problem for fans of a higher minimum wage”.

Nonetheless, these conclusions are a distraction from the real issue, which is – the federal minimum wage is not a living wage. It is well established that a majority of low wage workers must either work multiple jobs or rely on public assistance in order to live.

What Does the Law Say?

The original intent of minimum wage, as enacted by the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 under Franklin D. Roosevelt, was to protect exploited workers while also combating poverty by ensuring that people who work “earn a decent living“, i.e. a living wage. The minimum wage law is a human rights law but all too often the debate is framed as an economic issue rather than a human rights issue.

Since people who earn the current federal minimum wage live in poverty, the debate should never be about whether or not wages increase. It should be about how much wages increase and how to implement these increases in an efficient and equitable way.

And, the primary question that should be answered is: should an individual who works 40 hours a week be living in poverty?

In May, Senator Bernie Sanders introduced a bill that would over the next 8 years incrementally increase the federal minimum wage to $15 an hour. Economists analyzed the bill and calculated that if the wage were to increase to $15 by 2024, it would no longer be a poverty wage. In a country that has experienced historic levels of wealth, perhaps it is time to ensure the minimum wage policy accomplishes what it was initially established to do.

How to Get Involved in the Fight for $15?

Follow us on @notenoughgood on Twitter and @SISGIGroup on Facebook and Instagram for the next 5 weeks as we discuss everything you need to know about this issue and ways people can become involved to help create sustainable change. We invite individuals with an interest in the subject to chime into the conversation using the hashtag #AlsoSW and join our TweetChat on August 31, 2017 at 3pm EDT where we will hear from experts in social justice and advocacy who will discuss the human rights aspect of minimum wage.